16 May, 2010

The Best Way To Learn New Testament Greek? Start With Classical Greek!

For busy seminarians who are preparing for an even busier life in the ministry the prescription above will doubtless sound quite unreasonable. It requires plenty of time as it is to learn New Testament Greek, so why take even more precious time to learn classical Greek first? Reaching some degree of proficiency in New Testament Greek is regarded by many candidates for the pastoral ministry as a daunting intellectual challenge and anything that would make it even more difficult or time consuming is going to be viewed with extreme suspicion -- even by those who advocate the study of Greek as a continued requirement in Lutheran theological education. If the point of learning Greek is to be able to read the New Testament with some kind of minimal competency, why not adopt whatever means will get us to that end as quickly as possible?

The idea that the study of the ancient languages is little more than a means to an end is not a new one. Even the redoubtable C.F.W. Walther referred to the mandatory study of Latin and classical Greek in his own day as “the Court of the Gentiles,” that is to say, close but not all that close to the Holy of Holies. As J.P. Koehler, an appreciative, if not uncritical student of Walther’s, once observed, “many of his students misunderstood this to mean that the only purpose of such study was to prepare the student for the reading of the Bible in the original tongues and of the Latin church fathers” [The History of the Wisconsin Synod, ed. Leigh Jordahl (Sauk Rapids: 1981, 2nd edition), pp. 138-9.]

Koehler goes on to observe that this same rather dismissive attitude was often applied also to Luther’s famous advice in An die Ratsherren: “As we love the Gospel, so let us cling to the study of the ancient languages.... These languages are the scabbard which sheathes the sharp blade of the Spirit; in them this precious jewel is encased.” The scabbard is not the sword, to be sure, but it would be a mistake to view the study of classical Greek or any other language as nothing more than a propaedeutic tool, a means to a greater end. After all, jewelboxes and scabbards are objects of beauty and value in their own right. Museums are full of them. And they are absolutely necessary. Not to press Luther’s analogy too far, but swords need scabbards. They can do a lot of unintentional damage to the swordbearer and others if they are not sheathed properly. Precious jewels are much more easily lost once they are removed from their containers.

Real language study involves far more than simply memorizing conjugations and declensions and vocables. Language is an essential part of human culture. The ability to understand and employ language is indispensable for the serious practice of theology, because theology is language, too. The effective “servant of the Word” must be able to read and interpret and expound words, sacred and otherwise, with deep linguistic, historical, and rhetorical understanding. In the preface to his study of Isaiah, Luther wrote: “Two things are necessary to explain the prophet. The first is a knowledge of grammar, and this may be regarded as having the greatest weight. The second is more necessary, namely, a knowledge of the historical background, not only as an understanding of the events themselves as expressed in letters and syllables but as at the same time embracing rhetoric and dialectic, so that the figures of speech and the circumstances may be carefully heeded” (LW 16,3).

For American students at the college level today who are learning how to read a complex literary text in another language, no responsible pedagogy suggests that they should only aim to learn just enough so that they can make it through that one text, no matter how important it may be. German majors, even those who want to concentrate on contemporary Germany, read Luther and Nietzsche, not just Günther Grass or Der Spiegel. Prospective high school English teachers study Chaucer and Shakespeare even though one unfamiliar with both authors would still be able to read Hemingway or The Onion. When learning a foreign language, as in other areas of study, it is a pedagogical mistake to aim at achieving only the bare minimum. As I once heard a veteran professor of German language and literature say: “If you know enough German to be able to read Goethe, you will also be able to order a sausage and beer when you get to Frankfurt. But if you only learn enough German to be able to order a sausage and beer in Frankfurt, you will never be able to read Goethe.”

Koine Greek evolved directly from the Attic dialect of Greek which rapidly spread over the ancient Mediterranean world after the conquests of Alexander the Great, so students who can already read Plato discover that it is even easier to read the New Testament. What a great position for such students to be in! To know where the language you are studying came from; to know way more than enough Greek instead of struggling to get by. And this amplitude and depth of linguistic understanding enriches the work not only of beginners in Greek but also of those who have persisted in its study. Long after their training days are over, serious students of the Bible should continue to improve their understanding of the language in which “the precious jewel is encased” -- for the rest of their lives. After all, nobody thinks that you’re finished learning the English language just because you passed a required freshman composition class or graduated from college. Native speakers continue to deepen their understanding of their own languages until they die.

There are introductory classical Greek textbooks today that focus on helping students to gain the ability to read ancient Greek, whether classical or New Testament, with some facility as quickly as possible. My personal favorite right now is Athenaze (two volumes; Oxford University Press) which I have used for several years. Its instruction in grammar and syntax is thorough, but the textbook’s chief virtue is that it gets students reading actual Greek texts (simplified at first, of course) drawn from a wide variety of classical authors (especially Herodotus) as well as passages from the New Testament (the Gospel of John at first). Along the way, Athenaze helps students to consider aspects of Greek philosophy, Mediterranean religions, art and architecture, social institutions (e.g. slavery), healing and medicine, trade and travel, the theater, in other words, much of what Luther calls “the historical background” and “the circumstances” of the ancient Mediterranean world into which the incarnate God entered and dwelt among humans.


Rev. Eric J Brown said...

I got my classics degree from OU before heading to the Sem - my class was the last to learn on Crosby and Schaeffer - after us they moved to Athenaze, and although I have not had the opportunity to study or use it directly, every prof I talked to was pleased with it - and the OU faculty wasn't going to move from a 1927 grammar unless they found something better.

I would note as well that if someone wants to jump into straight biblical Greek, I'd suggest Clayton Croy's "A Primer of Biblical Greek" - which I have taught to folks here. It is one of the most well organized grammars I have see, and the translation exercises are around 40% Septuagint and 40% New Testament Greek -- the addition of the Septuagint really does improve the overall understanding of Greek that one gains from the book.

Christian Boehlke said...

I would even suggest that the best way to learn New Testament Greek is to learn Classical Greek after learning Classical Latin. In many ways, the learning of Latin sets the foundation for students to study Greek, be it Classical or Koine. I believe that beginning Latin instruction at the elementary school (Grammar School) students will be well prepared to pursue Greek studies and even do them side by side. Above all, the study of Latin and Greek opens to these students the rich tradition of Western Civilization in the original languages.

J. Hayes said...

Amen. Amen. Amen. In fact, I sometimes wonder whether we do more harm than good by shoving 2 months worth of "NT" Greek down seminarists' throats and then cutting them loose. More often than not they gain just enough Greek to do some damage, but not enough to do any good. It's like handing a kid a loaded gun and letting him shoot unsupervised. You've got to make sure that he knows what he's doing before you set him loose.

Jon Bruss said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jon Bruss said...

Indeed. Paul's dictum, that the pastor not be a neophyte, might well apply here, too. Fortunately, if the seminarians listen and let themselves be formed by the right professors, they can turn out to be responsible theologians in spite of a dearth of learning in Greek & Hebrew (and, as Christian Boehlke points out, Latin). BUT (and here's the big BUTT) it can really go awry, too. Your analogy is good. Another analogy I've used is the medical doctor who gets a crash course (6 weeks) in organic chem before entering med school. Who in the world would allow such a doctor to treat him or her?

Up to Pastor Brown's first comment (off of Carl's recommendation), I'm a fan of From Alpha to Omega by A. H. Groton, but then I've got commercial interests in the project, as well (http://www.amazon.com/Alpha-Omega-Ancillary-Exercises/dp/0941051617/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1274127056&sr=1-2). And yet, for a "traditional" approach to teaching Greek, I think this is quite good.

That said, this is finally my mind: whatever works best for the teacher will work best for the students. If Carl can do Athenaze super well, then great. I expect the results will be tremendous. Likewise with From Alpha to Omega, etc. There are, however, some real dogs out there.

And, finally, Carl's point is very well taken and must be that to which we try to steer the church once again. Melanchthon, in one of his many orations, plugs classical Greek because classical Greek is the language God chose to write the NT in BECAUSE it had a cultural capacity unlike any other languages (so PM; make of it what you will). But let us remember that Koine/NT Greek is classical Greek, of a form (just as both Homer and Hdt. and Plato are, though in wildly different dialects). You may master Plato's Greek, but you won't, thereby, have mastered Plato. Same goes with the NT: you can master NT Greek, but that doesn't mean you've really "gotten" the Greek NT. And that, finally, is the point.

Robbie F. said...

I'm with you on this one - but you would know all about that, eh? My 2 years of pre-sem Greek at BLC, beginning with a year of Classical grammar, put me way ahead of all the other guys at CTS who had studied Voelz's NT Greek grammar. Of course it didn't hurt that I actually spent 2 years at it instead of 2 weeks...!

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